LEEF has an update on recent research: A recent study into the impacts of pond management intensity, function and environmental variables on urban pond biodiversity of ponds in Stockholm has investigated which factors impact most on the level of biodiversity in urban ponds, as indicated by species richness of aquatic insects. The study suggests that varying intensities of management have no direct impact on overall biodiversity value, but that management can, however, influence particular groups of species e.g. caddis flies indirectly A helpful and general report on the impact of nature and biodiversity on health and wellbeing was published by the Institute for European Environmental Policy in August. The EU health sector represents 15% of public expenditure and health care costs are expected to increase. The key determinants of health include air pollution, heat stress particularly in urban areas, low physical activity levels, noise pollution, mental disorders, depression and urban demography, all of which are putting enormous strain on health care systems. The Report finds that while nature cannot be a remedy to all societal challenges (e.g. air pollution control will primarily need to address the sources of pollution), there exist untapped opportunities to realise health and social benefits that often come with co-benefits for biodiversity and nature protection.